Review — Show and Tell: A Neural Image Caption Generator

Neural Image Caption (NIC) for Caption Generation

Neural Image Caption (NIC): CNN+RNN end-to-end network

In this story, Show and Tell: A Neural Image Caption Generator, by Google, is reviewed. In this paper:

  • Neural Image Caption (NIC) is designed for image captioning.
  • BN-Inception / Inception-v2 generates the image representation.
  • LSTM generates natural sentences describing the image.

This is a paper in 2015 CVPR with over 5000 citations. (Sik-Ho Tsang @ Medium)

Outline

  1. Neural Image Caption (NIC) Network Architecture
  2. Experimental Results

1. Neural Image Caption (NIC) Network Architecture

Neural Image Caption (NIC) Network Architecture

1.1. Objective

  • NIC is to directly maximize the probability of the correct description given the image:
  • where θ are the parameters of our model, I is an image, and S its correct transcription.
  • Since S represents any sentence, its length is unbounded. Thus, it is common to apply the chain rule to model the joint probability over S0, …, SN, where N is the length of this particular example as:

1.2. LSTM as RNN

  • It is natural to model p(St|I, S0, …, St-1) with a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN).
  • where xt and ht are the input and the hidden state at time t.
  • f is LSTM as it can obtain SOTA performance on sequence tasks.

The core ability of LSTM is to either keep a value from the gated layer if the gate is 1 or zero this value if the gate is 0.

1.3. BN-Inception / Inception-v2 as CNN

The particular choice of CNN is BN-Inception / Inception-v2 which yields the good performance on the ILSVRC 2014 classification competition.

1.4. Overview

  • Each word is represented as a one-hot vector St of dimension equal to the size of the dictionary.
  • S0 is a special start word and SN is a special stop word.
  • The image I is only input once, at t=-1.

1.5. Training

  • During training, the loss is the sum of the negative log likelihood of the correct word at each step as follows:
  • CNN is initialized by pre-trained ImageNet, and left unchanged.
  • We is randomly initialized, since initializing using large corpus has no significant gain.

1.6. Inference

  • During inference, BeamSearch is used which iteratively considers the set of the k best sentences up to time t as candidates to generate sentences of size t+1, and keep only the resulting best k of them.
  • A beam of size 20 is used . Using a beam size of 1 (i.e., greedy search) did degrade our results by 2 BLEU points on average.

2. Experimental Results

2.1. Datasets

The statistics of the datasets
  • With the exception of SBU, each image has been annotated by labelers with 5 sentences that are relatively visual and unbiased.
  • SBU consists of descriptions given by image owners when they uploaded them to Flickr.

2.2. BLEU

BLEU-1 scores
  • Human scores were computed by comparing one of the human captions against the other four.

NIC outperforms SOTA approaches such as m-RNN by large margin.

  • Transfer learning is tried, but when running the MSCOCO model on SBU, our performance degrades from 28 down to 16.

2.3. Sentence Diversity

N-best examples from the MSCOCO test set. Bold lines indicate a novel sentence not present in the training set
  • If the best candidate is taken, the sentence is present in the training set 80% of the times.

2.4. Qualitative Results

A selection of evaluation results, grouped by human rating
Nearest neighbors of a few example words

Reference

[2015 CVPR] [Show and Tell/NIC]
Show and Tell: A Neural Image Caption Generator

Natural Language Processing (NLP)

Machine Translation

2014 [Seq2Seq] [RNN Encoder-Decoder]

Image Captioning

2015 [m-RNN] [R-CNN+BRNN] [Show and Tell/NIC]

My Other Previous Paper Readings

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