# Brief Review — Rectified Linear Units Improve Restricted Boltzmann Machines

**Rectified Linear Unit (ReLU)** Introduced

Rectified Linear Units Improve Restricted Boltzmann Machines, by University of Toronto

ReLU2010 ICML, Over 17000 Citations(Sik-Ho Tsang @ Medium)

Activation Function, Restricted Boltzmann Machine, Image Classification, Face Recognition

**Rectified Linear Unit (ReLU)**is introduced, which outperforms Sigmoid.- This is a paper from Hinton’s research group.

# Outline

**Rectified Linear Unit (ReLU)****Image Classification Results****Face Recognition Results**

**1. Rectified Linear Unit (ReLU)**

- More precisely,
**Noisy ReLU is proposed to replace the logistic sigmoid function needs to be used many times**to get the probabilities required for sampling an integer value correctly:

- where
*N*(0,*V*) is Gaussian noise with zero mean and variance*V*.

# 2. **Image Classification Results**

**Two hidden layers of NReLUs as RBMs**, are greedily pretrained. (For RBM, please read Autoencoder.)- The
**class label**is represented as a*K*-dimensional binary vector with 1-of-*K*activation, whereis the*K***number of classes**. - The classifier computes the probability of the
*K*classes**from the second layer hidden activities**using the*h*2**softmax**function.

**Pre-training helps improve the performance**of both unit types.- But
**NReLUs without pre-training are better than binary units with pre-training.**

**Pre-training both layers gives further improvement**for NReLUs but not for binary units.

# 3. Face Recognition Results

**The feature extractor**contains*FW***one hidden layer of NReLUs pre-trained as an RBM**. (For RBM, please read Autoencoder.)**Cosine distance**is used to check whether the faces are the same.

**Models using NReLUs**are**more accurate**.

This paper and AlexNet are often cited when ReLU is used. Classic!

## Reference

[2010 ICML] [ReLU]

Rectified Linear Units Improve Restricted Boltzmann Machines

## Image Classification

**1989 **… **2010** [ReLU] … **2022 **[ConvNeXt] [PVTv2]

## Face Recognition

**2005** [Chopra CVPR’05] **2010 **[ReLU] **2014** [DeepFace] [DeepID2] [CASIANet] **2015 **[FaceNet] **2016 **[N-pair-mc Loss]