Brief Review — Representation Learning by Learning to Count
Self-Supervised Learning By Counting Number of Visual Features
Representation Learning by Learning to Count,
Counting, by University of Bern, and University of Maryland
2017 ICCV, Over 300 Citations (Sik-Ho Tsang @ Medium)
Self-Supervised Learning, Image Classification
- Self-supervised learning is achieved by counting number of visual features.
1.1. Conceptual Idea
- To obtain a supervision signal useful to learn to count, an image is partitioned into non-overlapping regions. The number of visual primitives in each region should sum up to the number of primitives in the original image.
It is hypothesized that the model needs to disentangle the image into high-level factors of variation, such that the complex relation between the original image and its regions is translated to a simple arithmetic operation.
1.2. Contrastive Loss
- Assume x is color image input, the naïve way for training the network, D is downsampling operator, T is tiling operator to divide the image x into 4 non-overlapping parts:
- where Φ is the CNN to be learnt to count the visual features.
- However, this loss has trivial solution of equaling to zero.
To avoid such a scenario, a contrastive loss is used to enforce that the counting feature should be different between two randomly chosen different images.
- Therefore, for any x≠y, we would like to minimize:
- where the constant scalar M=10.
- The contrastive term will introduce a tradeoff that will push features towards counting as many primitives as is needed to differentiate images from each other.
1.3. Network Architecture
The proposed method either outperforms previous methods or achieve the second best performance.
The proposed method achieves a performance comparable to the other state-of-the-art methods on the ImageNet dataset and shows a significant improvement on the Places dataset.
[2017 ICCV] [Counting]
Representation Learning by Learning to Count
1.2. Unsupervised/Self-Supervised Learning
1993 … 2017 [Counting] … 2021 [MoCo v3] [SimSiam] [DINO] [Exemplar-v1, Exemplar-v2] [MICLe] [Barlow Twins] [MoCo-CXR] [W-MSE] [SimSiam+AL] [BYOL+LP] 2022 [BEiT] [BEiT V2]