Brief Review — ELECTRA: Pre-training Text Encoders as Discriminators Rather Than Generators

ELECTRA, Outperforms BERT, GPT, RoBERTa, XLNet, ELMo, GloVe

Sik-Ho Tsang
4 min readNov 5, 2022


Replaced token detection pre-training consistently outperforms masked language model (MLM) pre-training given the same compute budget

ELECTRA: Pre-training Text Encoders as Discriminators Rather Than Generators,
ELECTRA, by Stanford University, Google Brain, & CIFAR Fellow
2020 ICLR, Over 1800 Citations (Sik-Ho Tsang @ Medium)
Natural Language Processing, NLP, Language Model, LM, BERT

  • A more sample-efficient pre-training task called replaced token detection is proposed as the name of Efficiently Learning an Encoder that Classifies Token Replacements Accurately (ELECTRA).
  • Generator: Instead of masking the input (e.g. BERT), ELECTRA corrupts it by replacing some tokens with plausible alternatives sampled from a small generator network.
  • Discriminator: Then, instead of training a model that predicts the original identities of the corrupted tokens (e.g. BERT), a discriminative model is trained to predict whether each token in the corrupted input was replaced by a generator sample or not.


  1. Efficiently Learning an Encoder that Classifies Token Replacements Accurately (ELECTRA)
  2. Results

1. Efficiently Learning an Encoder that Classifies Token Replacements Accurately (ELECTRA)

An overview of replaced token detection

1.1. Idea

ELECTRA trains two networks, a generator G and a discriminator D.

  • Each one primarily consists of an encoder (e.g., a Transformer network) that maps a sequence on input tokens x=[x1, …, xn] into a sequence of contextualized vector representations h(x)=[h1, …, hn].
  • For where xt=[MASK], the generator outputs a probability for generating a particular token xt with a softmax layer:
  • where e denotes token embeddings.
  • For a given position t, the discriminator predicts whether the token xt is “real,” i.e., that it comes from the data rather than the generator distribution, with a sigmoid output layer:

The generator is trained to perform masked language modeling (MLM).

1.2. Procedures

  • MLM first select a random set of positions to mask.
  • Then, the generator then learns to predict the original identities of the masked-out tokens.
  • The discriminator is trained to distinguish tokens in the data from tokens that have been replaced by generator samples.
  • The loss functions are:
  • The combined loss is:

1.3. Downstream

  • After pre-training, the generator is thrown out and the discriminator is fine-tuned on downstream tasks.
  • For fine-tuning on GLUE, simple linear classifiers are added on top of ELECTRA. For SQuAD, the question-answering module from XLNet is added on top of ELECTRA.

2. Results

2.1. Ablation Study

Left: GLUE scores for different generator/discriminator sizes (number of hidden units). Right: Comparison of different training algorithms.
  • Left: Models work best with generators 1/4–1/2 the size of the discriminator.
  • Right: Different training strategies are tried, such as adversarial learning, the one that proposed is the best. It is conjectured that adversarially trained generator produces a low-entropy output distribution where most of the probability mass is on a single token, which means there is not much diversity in the generator samples.

2.2. Small Models on GLUE

Comparison of small models on the GLUE dev set.

ELECTRA-Small performs remarkably well given its size, achieving a higher GLUE score than other methods using substantially more compute and parameters.

  • For example, it scores 5 points higher than a comparable BERT-Small model and even outperforms the much larger GPT model. ELECTRA-Small is trained mostly to convergence, with models trained for even less time (as little as 6 hours) still achieving reasonable performance.

2.3. Large Models on GLUE

Comparison of large models on the GLUE dev set

ELECTRA-400K performs comparably to RoBERTa and XLNet.

  • However, it took less than 1/4 of the compute to train ELECTRA-400K as it did to train RoBERTa and XLNet, demonstrating that ELECTRA’s sample-efficiency gains hold at large scale.
  • Training ELECTRA for longer (ELECTRA-1.75M) results in a model that outscores them on most GLUE tasks while still requiring less pre-training compute.
GLUE-test-set results for large models.

ELECTRA’s gains hold on the GLUE test set, although these comparisons are less apples-to-apples due to the additional tricks employed by the models.

2.4. SQuAD

Results on the SQuAD for non-ensemble models.

ELECTRA scores better than masked-language-modeling-based methods given the same compute resources. Unsurprisingly, training ELECTRA longer improves results further.


ELECTRA: Pre-training Text Encoders as Discriminators Rather Than Generators

4.1. Language Model / Sequence Model

(Some are not related to NLP, but I just group them here)

19912020 [ALBERT] [GPT-3] [T5] [Pre-LN Transformer] [MobileBERT] [TinyBERT] [BART] [Longformer] [ELECTRA]

My Other Previous Paper Readings



Sik-Ho Tsang

PhD, Researcher. I share what I learn. :) Linktree: for Twitter, LinkedIn, etc.