Brief Review — OPT: Open Pre-trained Transformer Language Models

OPT-175B, Replicate GPT-3, With Model Weights are Open to Public

Sik-Ho Tsang
4 min readMay 6, 2023
Democratizing access to large-scale language models with OPT-175B (Figure from Meta AI)

OPT: Open Pre-trained Transformer Language Models,
OPT, by Meta AI,
2022 arXiv v4, Over 300 Citations (Sik-Ho Tsang @ Medium)

Language Model
1991 … 2022 [GPT-NeoX-20B] [GPT-3.5, InstructGPT] [GLM] [MT-NLG 530B] [Chinchilla] [PaLM] [AlexaTM] [BLOOM] [AlexaTM 20B] 2023 [GPT-4]
==== My Other Paper Readings Are Also Over Here ====

  • LLMs are difficult to replicate without significant capital. No access is granted to the full model weights, making them difficult to study.
  • Open Pre-trained Transformers (OPT) are presented, which are a suite of decoder-only pre-trained Transformers ranging from 125M to 175B parameters.
  • The goal of OPT is to replicate GPT-3 with the provision of open access. OPT-175B is comparable to GPT-3 while requiring only 1/7th the carbon footprint to develop.


  1. Open Pre-trained Transformer (OPT)
  2. Results

1. Open Pre-trained Transformer (OPT)

1.1. Model Architecture

OPT Model Architecture
  • 8 Transformer language models ranging from 125 million to 175 billion parameters are constructed. The models and hyperparameters largely follow GPT-3.
  • For weight initialization, OPT follows the same settings provided in the Megatron-LM codebase.
  • All models are trained with ReLU and a sequence length of 2048.
  • The batch sizes range from 0.5M to 4M depending on the model size.

1.2. Pre-training Corpus

  • The pre-training corpus contains a concatenation of datasets used in RoBERTa, the Pile, and Reddit, with some subset selections.
  • OPT tokenizes all corpora using the GPT-2 byte level BPE tokenizer.

1.3. Training

  • OPT-175B is trained on 992 80GB A100 GPUs, by utilizing Fully Sharded Data Parallel with Megatron-LM Tensor Parallelism.
  • Up to 147 TFLOP/s per GPU throughput is obtained.
  • Adam state is stored in FP32 while the model weights are in FP16.
  • Unfortunately, there were hardware failures contributed to at least 35 manual restarts and the cycling of over 100 hosts over the course of 2 months.
  • Loss divergence happens and it is solved by lowering the learning rate and restarting from an earlier checkpoint, as above.

2. Results

2.1. Zero-Shot & Multi-Shot NLP Tasks

Zero-Shot & Multi-Shot NLP Tasks

Left: Overall, the average performance follows the trend of GPT-3.

Right: OPTs consistently underperform GPT-3. It is hypothesized that the one- and few-shot evaluation setup may differ significantly from GPT-3.

2.2. Dialogue

  • OPT compares primarily against existing open source dialogue models including the fine-tuned BlenderBot 1.

OPT-175B significantly outperforms the also-unsupervised Reddit 2.7B model on all tasks.

2.3. Bias, Toxicity, & Dialogue Safety

Bias, Toxicity, & Dialogue Safety
  • Table 3: The model is presented with text and asked to consider whether the text is racist or sexist and provide a yes/no response.

OPT-175B performs considerably better than Davinci.

  • Table 4: CrowS-Pairs, to measure intrasentence level biases in 9 categories: gender, religion, race/color, sexual orientation, age, nationality, disability, physical appearance, and socioeconomic status. Higher score, higher bias.

OPT-175B appears to exhibit more stereotypical biases in almost all categories except for religion. This is due to the data source for OPT-175B, the model may have learned more discriminatory associations, which directly impacts its performance.

  • Table 5: StereoSet measures stereotypical bias across 4 categories.

Davinci and OPT-175B exhibit similar scores on aggregate.

  • Figure 5: Prompts from RTP are randomly sampled, and mean toxicity probabilities are reported.

OPT-175B has a higher toxicity rate than either PaLM or Davinci. It is also observed that all 3 models have increased likelihood of generating toxic continuations as the toxicity of the prompt increases.

  • Table 6: See if the models generate toxic responses.

OPT-175B has similar performance as the Reddit 2.7B model across both SaferDialogues and the Unit Tests, with OPT-175B performing marginally better in the Safe and Adversarial settings.

2.4. Limitations

  • OPT-175B suffers from the same limitations noted in other LLMs:

OPT-175B does not work well with declarative instructions or point-blank interrogatives.

OPT-175B also tends to be repetitive and can easily get stuck in a loop.

Similar to other LLMs, OPT-175B can produce factually incorrect statements.

  • And so on.

2.5. Carbon footprint

  • There exists significant compute and carbon cost to reproduce models of this size.

While OPT-175B was developed with an estimated carbon emissions footprint (CO2eq) of 75 tons, GPT-3 was estimated to use 500 tons, while Gopher required 380 tons.



Sik-Ho Tsang

PhD, Researcher. I share what I learn. :) Linktree: for Twitter, LinkedIn, etc.